Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Live Together in Peace on Missouri

The Missouri River Valley, 1820

In the early 1800s the Arikara moved up river to live near the Mandan and Hidatsa who had lived together in peace for many years. Although the Arikara speak Caddoan and the Mandan and Hidatsa speak a Siouan dialect, the three tribes live together in peace.

They live in earthlodges which are spacious and permanently built. Although each tribe goes on an annual plains buffalo hunt, the three tribes are primarily farmers. They mainly grow corn, squash, pumpkin, beans, and tobacco. The women do the gardening, and the men do the hunting. Often they trade their produce for such things as tools and cloth. They also fashion wonderful pottery.

Interior of a Mandan Earth Lodge by Karl Bodmer.  Courtesy of the Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation.

Kinship is all important. A person is born into a family and into a clan or band (an extended family group). Kinship means that no one is alone, that everyone is cared for. Social and educational matters revolve around the clan. Anyone called “mother,” “sister,” or “brother” is treated with great respect. “Cousins” are close. Grandparents and elders are given special respect as providers of love, knowledge and wisdom.

Religion is central to everyone’s life. Whether called the Master of Life, the Chief Above, the Great Mystery, or the Great Spirit, a Creator controls the universe. Most religious ceremonies are associated with successful farming and hunting and individual spiritual strength. The Arikara medicine lodge ceremony, which comes in the fall, lasts fifteen to twenty days. People feast and do sacred dances. The Okipa ceremony of the Mandan dramatized the creation of the world and the gift of animals, especially the buffalo. The Hidatsas Naxpike ceremony is similar to the Okipa.

These major ceremonies renew the people’s sacred beliefs, put the universe in balance, and insure the protection of the spirits for their people.

 

 

By Dr. D. Jerome Tweton

Source

Originally published as The North Star Dakotan student newspaper, written by Dr. D. Jerome Tweton and supported by the North Dakota Humanities Council.

Subject Matter

Social Studies

North Star Dakotan:

Journals and Art Work: The Indian People, The Trade, and The Land

The Indian People

The Purchase and Exploration of Louisiana

The Fur Trade

Dakota Territory

The Military Frontier

The Reservation System

George Armstrong Custer and the Battle of the Little Bighorn

The Great Dakota Boom, 1878-1890

Reservation Troubles, 1886-1890

The Making of a State and a Constitution

The North Dakota Economy, 1890-1915

Life on the Indian Reservations

The North Dakota National Guard and the Philippines

North Dakota, The Great War and After

The Nonpartisan League's Rise to Power

The Nonpartisan League in Power

The Nonpartisan League's Decline

The 1920s

1930s: North Dakota's Economic and Political Climate

The New Deal in North Dakota

The Road to World War II

North Dakota and American Society

North Dakota Optimism and Economic Developments

North Dakota and Political Change